Sample 12005 is a Mare basalt collected during the Apollo 12 mission to the Moon. The sample contains the highest magnesium content of all lunar basalts and is similar to primitive picritic basalts on Earth. Although the age of this sample has not been determined, most Mare basalts are between 3 and 3.5 billion years old. The top surface of the hand specimen sample is covered in micrometeorite craters, otherwise known as zap pits.
The thin section of this sample exhibits a cumulate texture, formed when dense crystals settle within a partially crystallised magma. Cumulate textures are also observed in some basalt and gabbro rocks on Earth. The rock contains abundant olivine and pyroxene (augite and pigeonite) phenocrysts and interstitial plagioclase feldspar. Minor amounts of ilmenite and chrome spinel are also present.
Further details of this and other Apollo samples are here: http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/
Apollo 12 returned 34 kilograms of samples, including 45 rocks, samples of lunar 'soil', and several core tubes that included material from as much as 40 centimetres below the lunar surface.
Apollo 12 rocks were almost all basalts, with only two breccias in the returned samples. The basalts at the Apollo 12 site formed 3.1 to 3.3 billion years ago, roughly 500 million years later than the Apollo 11 basalts. Overall, there is much less of the element titanium in the Apollo 12 samples than in the Apollo 11 samples, which explains the more reddish colour of this region. The differences in age and chemical composition between the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 samples demonstrate that mare volcanism did not occur as a single, Moon-wide melting event.
Apollo 12 was launched on 14 November 1969.