Apollo 11

Parent collection: 

The Apollo 11 samples create an iconic collection since they were the first rocks collected by humankind that were returned to Earth from another solar system body. The Apollo 11 team collected and returned 22 kg of rock and soil samples.

Apollo 11 launched from Cape Kennedy on July 16, 1969. An estimated 530 million people watched Armstrong's televised image and heard his voice describe the event as he took "...one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind" on July 20, 1969.

Main image: 
status: 
active

When you look at the Moon on a clear night with the naked eye, you can see colour variations. The overall pattern that they make is sometimes called ‘the man in the Moon’ because some people think they see a face. The lighter areas are the highlands and the darker areas are maria (mare is the singular form).

The lunar highlands represent the original lunar crust, as seen in the previous step. The oldest highland rocks are more than 4.15 billion years old and sometimes as old as 4.4 billion years, which is older than any rock found on Earth. They are mainly anorthosite, but also include dunite and gabbro with increasing depth. These are the oldest rocks on the Moon and are evidence for a magma ocean, as discussed earlier.

In contrast, the maria are basins filled in with basalt and were formed mostly between roughly 3.0 and 3.5 billion years ago. However, there are some small patches that are thought to be as young as around 1.0 billion years. The mare basalts are secondary to the Moon’s formation, in the sense that they did not form from the magma ocean stage like anorthosite, but by later heating and melting of the mantle in the same way that volcanoes are formed on Earth.

Two other types of deposit are found on the surface of the Moon:

regolith: the crushed remains of other rock types that coat much of the surface
breccia: a rock formed of regolith that has been welded together at high temperature and pressure.
Regolith is the mixture of dust, mineral fragments and rock fragments that lies on the surface. Breccia is formed in the explosions when large asteroids hit the Moon.

The Moon has no atmosphere, so even the smallest meteorites just millimetres across reach the surface and form craters. (Such meteorites are called micrometeorites.) Some of the Moon rocks returned to Earth by the Apollo astronauts have small pock marks formed when tiny particles hit them. Each is filled by a thin layer of rock that melted in the impact and then re-solidified.

additional_image: 
Apollo 11 crew: Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins & Buzz Aldrin (courtesy of NASA)
Apolo 11 lunar module - Eagle (courtesy of NASA)
Apollo 11 sample location map

Nid: 292
Microscope asset URL
 >View Microscope
Asset URL
Nid: 293
Microscope asset URL
 >View Microscope
Asset URL
Nid: 264
Microscope asset URL
 >View Microscope
Asset URL
Nid: 294
Microscope asset URL
 >View Microscope
Asset URL
Nid: 265
Microscope asset URL
 >View Microscope
Asset URL
Nid: 412
Microscope asset URL
 >View Microscope
Asset URL
Nid: 266
Microscope asset URL
 >View Microscope
Asset URL
Nid: 413
Microscope asset URL
 >View Microscope
Asset URL
Nid: 267
Microscope asset URL
 >View Microscope
Asset URL
Nid: 268
Microscope asset URL
 >View Microscope
Asset URL
Nid: 488
Microscope asset URL
 >View Microscope
Asset URL
Nid: 414
Microscope asset URL
 >View Microscope
Asset URL
Nid: 295
Microscope asset URL
 >View Microscope
Asset URL
Nid: 269
Microscope asset URL
 >View Microscope
Asset URL
Nid: 129
Microscope asset URL
 >View Microscope
Asset URL
Nid: 415
Microscope asset URL
 >View Microscope
Asset URL
Nid: 296
Microscope asset URL
 >View Microscope
Asset URL
Nid: 297
Microscope asset URL
 >View Microscope
Asset URL
Nid: 428
Microscope asset URL
 >View Microscope
Asset URL
Nid: 271
Microscope asset URL
 >View Microscope
Asset URL

Pages

Collection description

When you look at the Moon on a clear night with the naked eye, you can see colour variations. The overall pattern that they make is sometimes called ‘the man in the Moon’ because some people think they see a face. The lighter areas are the highlands and the darker areas are maria (mare is the singular form).

The lunar highlands represent the original lunar crust, as seen in the previous step. The oldest highland rocks are more than 4.15 billion years old and sometimes as old as 4.4 billion years, which is older than any rock found on Earth. They are mainly anorthosite, but also include dunite and gabbro with increasing depth. These are the oldest rocks on the Moon and are evidence for a magma ocean, as discussed earlier.

In contrast, the maria are basins filled in with basalt and were formed mostly between roughly 3.0 and 3.5 billion years ago. However, there are some small patches that are thought to be as young as around 1.0 billion years. The mare basalts are secondary to the Moon’s formation, in the sense that they did not form from the magma ocean stage like anorthosite, but by later heating and melting of the mantle in the same way that volcanoes are formed on Earth.

Two other types of deposit are found on the surface of the Moon:

regolith: the crushed remains of other rock types that coat much of the surface
breccia: a rock formed of regolith that has been welded together at high temperature and pressure.
Regolith is the mixture of dust, mineral fragments and rock fragments that lies on the surface. Breccia is formed in the explosions when large asteroids hit the Moon.

The Moon has no atmosphere, so even the smallest meteorites just millimetres across reach the surface and form craters. (Such meteorites are called micrometeorites.) Some of the Moon rocks returned to Earth by the Apollo astronauts have small pock marks formed when tiny particles hit them. Each is filled by a thin layer of rock that melted in the impact and then re-solidified.