Carboniferous limestone with crinoids
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Fact sheet

Carboniferous limestone with crinoids

This Lower Carboniferous limestone contains many fragments of crinoid ossicles that were once the stems of ancient marine animals attached to the sea bed, sometimes called sea lilies. There are also many fragments of brachiopod shells. The sample comes from Bucket Rocks, Berwick upon Tweed, England, and is cemented by a carbonate rich mud.

The thin section is dominated by two species of crinoid ossicles, both in longitudinal section and cross section. One species has a circular cross section, the other has a five-sided form. The crinoids have a dusty appearance due to the microcrystalline nature. Fragments of brachiopod shells are marked out by more transparent crystalline calcite. The cement ranges from blocky carbonate grains to fine-grained calcium-rich mud.

Additional images
  • Hand specimen of carboniferous limestone
  • cose up of carboniferous limestone
  • cose up of carboniferous limestone
  • cose up of carboniferous limestone
  • polished surface on hand specimen of carboniferous limestone
55.773, -1.9872
Bucket rocks, Berwick on Tweed, Berwickshire
About this collection

The United Kingdom Virtual Microscope (UKVM) collection consists of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks from around the UK.

It is intended as a teaching resource, helping to tell the story of the common rock types and how they form, and reflecting the history of the UK at the margins of the continent of Europe. The collection is a series of teaching sets, for example igneous rocks from the North Atlantic Igneous Province and SW England; high-temperature metamorphic rocks from Scotland and low-temperature metamorphic rocks from Wales; and sedimentary rocks, including English limestones and sandstones.

Sample details

Rock-forming mineral
Category guide  
Category Guide
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Accessory minerals
Minerals that occur in very low abundance in a rock. They are usually not visible with the naked eye and contribute perhapssver, they often dominate the rare elements such as platinum group metals.
Rock-forming minerals
Minerals that make up the bulk of all rock samples and are also the ones used in rock classi?cation.
Selecting one or more period, for example 'Jurassic'.
A term used to group together related samples that are not already gathered into a single Collection. For instance, there is a ‘SW England granites’ theme that includes such rock types as granite, hydrothermal breccia, skarn and vein samples.
A general term used to label a rock sample. It is a useful way of grouping similar samples throughout a collection. Category names are often, but not exclusively, common rock names (e.g. granite, basalt, dolerite, gabbro, greisen, skarn, gneiss, amphibolite, limestone, sandstone).
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We would like to thank the following for the use of this sample: